Common causes of heel pain are plantar fasciitis, fat pad atrophy and bursitis. Stress fractures and Sever's disease are other causes, according to NHS Choices.
Plantar fasciitis occurs when the band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the rest of the foot becomes thickened and damaged. Fat pad atrophy happens when the layer of fat that lies under the heel bone begins to waste away due to high levels of strain. Bursitis is an inflammation of one or many bursa, which are tiny sacs filled with fluid under the skin, between bones and tendons and over the joints, reports NHS Choices.
Stress fractures can occur if an individual damages the heel bone through repeated stress. Sever's disease, common in children, happens when the tendons and muscles of the calves and hamstrings tighten and stretch as a result of growth spurts, explains NHS Choices.