An eye hemorrhage can be caused by violent coughing, vomiting, heavy lifting, sneezing and trauma, explains Mayo Clinic. Other causes include severe eye infections, eye rubbing, blood vessel abnormalities on the iris, artificial lens implants and eye cancer, according to Healthline.
A subconjunctival hemorrhage is caused by broken blood vessels in the white of the eye, according to WebMD. It appears as a red patch on the sclera, but it does not cause vision changes or pain, explains Mayo Clinic. The most common symptom is a scratchy feeling on the eye. Risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, blood-clotting disorders and the use of blood-thinning medications. A subconjunctival hemorrhage does not require treatment because the blood in the eye resorbs within one to two weeks.
A hyphema is a hemorrhage that occurs between the cornea and the iris, and it can cause blood to cover most of the iris and the pupil, explains Healthline. Symptoms include blurry or blocked vision, light sensitivity, pain, and visible blood in the eye. A hyphema requires immediate medical attention, and it is treated with steroid eye drops, bed rest, an eye patch, elevation of the head above 40 degrees and daily eye pressure checks. The condition is associated with serious complications including increased eye pressure and glaucoma.