The most common cause of Tardive Dyskinesia is the use of neuroleptics, or antipsychotic medications that block dopamine receptors. Biliary dyskinesia is a symptom of intestinal disorders. These are the two most common forms of dyskinesia.
Dyskinesia is the involuntary spasm of muscles. Neuroleptic medications are commonly used in the long-term treatment of mental disorders. They are powerful antipsychotics, that effect the brain's ability to absorb dopamine. Dopamine is important to voluntary muscle movement in the face. When dopamine absorption is hindered, facial muscles may involuntarily spasm, otherwise known as a facial dyskinesic episode, explains The Tardive Dyskinesia Center.
Biliary dyskinesia is classified as a Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information. An individual with SOD may experience involuntary muscle spasms in the sphincter of Oddi. Stress and anxiety are believed to be the most common causes of biliary dyskinesia. Foods high in fat and chronic inflammation are other common causes of biliary dyskinesia. Since biliary dyskinesia is generally a symptom of a more severe medical condition, spasms may be induced by pancreatitis, gallbladder stones and other intestinal diseases and disorders. Decreasing consumption of fried or fatty foods, meditation and increasing sleep can all help prevent biliary dyskinesia.