Sudden foot and toe pain may be caused by arthritis, a bunion, hammer toe or claw toe, according to WebMD. Other causes of sudden foot and toe pain include ingrown toenails and turf toe.
Arthritis in the foot, including gout, typically affects the big toe and periodically comes and goes, reports WebMD. Treatments for this include rest, medications and dietary changes to prevent gout flare ups. A bunion may also cause pain in the toe and foot. Bunions form next to the big toe, and treatments include changing to different shoes, wearing orthotics and having surgery.
Hammer and claw toes may also cause pain in the foot and toe, explains WebMD. These conditions are treated by changing shoes, stretching the foot, using orthotics and undergoing surgery. If the sudden pain is near the toenails, a person may have an ingrown toenail. Treatment for an ingrown toenail includes soaking the toes at least four times a day and wedging a small piece of gauze between the toe and nail. If this doesn't work, a person should see a doctor. Turf toe is a condition that also may cause sudden pain in the foot and toe. This is an overuse injury and is usually caused by hyperextending the big toe. Resting the foot usually takes care of pain caused by turf toe.