Common bladder problems include urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence and difficulty with urination flow, according to About.com. Chronic kidney disease and acute renal failure are common kidney problems, says WebMD.
There are two kinds of urinary tract infections: upper and lower. In a lower UTI, the bladder and urethra are inflamed or irritated. An upper UTI involves the kidneys and uterus. This is a more serious infection because the kidneys work to filter out waste from the blood through the urine, notes About.com.
Symptoms of a lower UTI include a sudden discomfort in the abdomen, pain or burning during urination and an increased need to urinate. A high fever, shaking chills, nausea and vomiting are some symptoms of an upper UTI, explains About.com.
Acute renal failure is the sudden loss of kidney function. The main causes for this are lack of blood flow to the kidneys, direct damage to the kidneys, and blockage of urine from the kidneys. These things may happen due to dehydration, a traumatic injury with blood loss, an enlarged prostate or damage from drugs or toxins, according to WebMD.
Common causes of chronic kidney disease include compromised immune systems, multiple episodes of upper UTIs, inflammation within the filters of the kidneys and congenital birth defects, explains WebMD. Long-term exposure to certain medications, chemicals and drugs may also cause kidney disease.