Infectious colitis, or colon inflammation, can often be treated with diet and observation, according to MedicineNet. The initial treatment may require rehydration, either orally or intravenously. Patients may need help controlling pain and stabilizing their vital signs.
Patients who suffer from ulcerative colitis may require medication and surgery to treat the condition, according to Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. Medications work to reduce inflammation and allow tissue to heal, as well as reduce the frequency of symptoms, including bleeding and abdominal pain. Diet and proper nutrition are important for managing symptoms such as diarrhea, and many patients benefit from avoiding spicy foods and too much fiber. Dairy foods are restricted in those who are lactose intolerant. In severe cases where medical therapy is ineffective, surgery is performed to remove the colon.
Patients suffering from colitis need to be diagnosed to determine the severity of the condition, which can be caused by viruses, parasites or bacteria in the intestines, states MedicineNet. The most common bacteria that cause colitis include E. coli, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter and yersinia. Infections are commonly caused by consuming contaminated food or water or by taking certain antibiotics. In some cases the condition can be contagious and passed from person to person as a result of poor hygiene or sanitation conditions.