Infection of the colon is a type of colitis caused by viruses and bacteria, including E. coli, salmonella, shigella and campylobacter, according to eMedicineHealth. Symptoms of infectious colitis are bloody diarrhea and dehydration.
Infectious colitis is typically caused by food-borne illnesses or parasites, such as giardia, when infected water or food is swallowed, or through recreational swimming, states eMedicineHealth. A specific and less prevalent infectious colitis is pseudomembranous colitis, which is caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. Symptoms include fever and diarrhea that is not bloody. This type of colitis is caused by taking anitbiotics that alter the normal bacteria levels in the colon, allowing overgrowth of the Clostridium bacteria.