Colon doctors may be called gastroenterologists. They are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and management of digestive system diseases. Doctors who solely treat conditions associated with the colon, rectum and anus are called proctologists.
In addition to treating conditions of the colon, a gastroenterologist treats conditions of the stomach, esophagus, small intestine and the biliary system. The gastroenterologist is also an internal medicine physician, and common colon conditions that are seen include irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, peptic ulcers, acid reflux disease and colon cancer. Eligible gastroenterologists can become board certified by the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Proctologists, while specializing in treatment of the colon, do not treat conditions of the stomach, liver or esophagus like gastroenterologists do.