Treatment of chronic renal insufficiency may involve use of blood pressure medication, statin medication to lower cholesterol, erythropoietin to treat anemia, diuretics to reduce swelling or a low-protein diet to reduce stress on the kidneys, according to Mayo Clinic. If the disease progresses to end-stage kidney disease, treatment must involve either dialysis or a transplant. Without treatment for end-stage disease, the patient's life expectancy is only several weeks.
Renal insufficiency may cause a patient to experience high blood pressure, high cholesterol, swelling or anemia, states Mayo Clinic. A doctor may prescribe calcium, vitamin D or medication to control phosphate levels in the blood. Kidneys filter waste products from the blood, so lowering the amount of protein in the diet can lessen the burden on the kidneys by reducing the waste by-products of protein digestion.
Kidneys that have failed can no longer filter the blood or eliminate excess fluid, so the patient must undergo dialysis, a procedure in which a machine carries out these tasks, explains Mayo Clinic. If possible, the patient may undergo a kidney transplant, in which doctors place a healthy kidney into the patient's body. This requires the patient to take anti-rejection medications for life to prevent his body from rejecting the new kidney.