A chloride blood test is a laboratory test that measures the amount of the electrolyte chloride in a patient's blood serum, according to MedlinePlus. A normal range is about 96 to 106 milliequivalents per liter.
Hyperchloremia means a higher-than-normal level of chloride, and its causes include diarrhea, renal tubular or metabolic acidosis, using carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to treat glaucoma, and bromide poisoning. Hypochloremia is when test results show a level of chloride that is lower than normal, which occurs after congestive heart failure, burns, dehydration and vomiting. Chloride functions with electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, and carbon dioxide to maintain the body's acid-base balance and its balance of fluids, notes MedlinePlus.