Chest lymphadenopathy is an abnormality in the size or characteristics of the lymph nodes in the chest, says American Family Physician. It occurs when inflammatory or otherwise unhealthy cells enter the lymph nodes.
Lymphadenopathy appears due to a number of illnesses, injuries and other causes, according to American Family Physician. Abnormalities in the lymph nodes can appear due to infection, autoimmune disorders, treatment for other health concerns and other miscellaneous reasons. The most common cause of this abnormality in the lymph nodes is infection or injury to the area. The most concerning cause of lymphadenopathy is an underlying malignancy, such as cancer.