There is no one single chemical formula to describe the total chemical composition of Colgate toothpaste because it is a mixture of different chemicals rather than a pure substance. However, almost all Colgate toothpastes are comprised of the same types of ingredients, including abrasives, fluorides and surfactants.
A significant portion of the toothpaste is water, comprising about one third by weight. The abrasives included within the manufacturing process serve to scrub plaque and bits of food from the dental surface. Fluorides are added because of their ability to harden dental enamel, thereby protecting the tooth. Finally, surfactants act as a foaming agent, helping to ensure a uniform application of the active ingredients across all teeth.