Like all muscle cramps, a toe cramp can have many possible causes, including injury, blood flow problems, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, or dehydration, notes WebMD. Taking certain medications, such as steroids, birth control pills, antipsychotic drugs and diuretics, can also cause toe cramps.
Muscle cramps in the toes are generally harmless, and sufferers can usually ease them by performing exercises that stretch the toes, such as toe curls and toe flexes, notes Healthline. There are specific medical conditions associated with muscle cramps, however, including multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease and kidney disease. Other causes include not having enough potassium, calcium, or magnesium in the diet, explains WebMD.