Toe cramps are a type of muscle cramp that has various causes including an electrolyte imbalance, nerve damage and vitamin D deficiency, according to MedlinePlus. Diagnosis involves testing the body's kidney function and hormone, mineral and vitamin D levels.
Electrolyte imbalances can cause various conditions relating to imbalances of calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium or sodium in the body, explains Healthline. Electrolyte imbalances are most often caused by medications but can also result from trauma from burns, broken bones, cancer and thyroid disorders. People with electrolyte imbalances can experience symptoms such as fatigue, lethargy and headache.
Nerve damage can occur in a nerve group or in multiple nerves, notes MedlinePlus. Damage to a single nerve or nerve group is called mononeuropathy and is most often caused by injury. A person with mononeuropathy can have symptoms such as loss of sensation, paralysis and abnormal sensations.
Damage to multiple nerves is called polyneuropathy and has various causes including toxins, infections, drugs, cancers and nutritional deficiencies, says the Merck Manual Consumer Version. Polyneuropathy usually begins in the feet or hands, and with time, progresses upward.
A vitamin D deficiency can be caused by insufficient dietary vitamin D, limited sunlight exposure and dark skin, according to WebMD. Bone pain and muscle weakness are symptoms of this deficiency, and if not treated, the condition can lead to asthma in children, cancer and increased risk of death from heart disease.