The causes of testicular cancer are unknown as of 2014, according to Mayo Clinic. The disease occurs when healthy cells in a testicle develop abnormalities and grow out of control, ultimately accumulating as a mass. Testicular cancer typically starts in testicular germ cells, which produce immature sperm.
Factors that increase a man's risk of developing testicular cancer include a family history of testicular cancer, an undescended testicle and abnormal testicle development, according to Mayo Clinic. White men are more likely to develop testicular cancer than black men, and a majority of testicular cancer patients are between the ages of 15 to 35, but it affects men of all ages.
Symptoms of testicular cancer include a heavy feeling in the scrotum, a lump or growth in either testicle, an ache in the abdomen or scrotum, the sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum, back pain, and pain and discomfort in the scrotum or one of the testicles, according to Mayo Clinic.
The primary treatment for testicular cancer is surgery to remove the affected testicle, according to Mayo Clinic. Additionally, surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes is sometimes necessary. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are also sometimes necessary. Regular testicular self-examinations are recommended to check for testicular growths.