Binge drinking, caffeine, stress and both smoking and chewing tobacco can cause a temporary spike in diastolic blood pressure that can lead to pre-hypertension or hypertension levels, states Mayo Clinic. Hypertension may lead to a variety of serious medical complications.
Although isolated systolic blood hypertension, as compared to isolated diastolic hypertension, is a better predictor of risk, treatment of both reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, states the National Institutes of Health. While there is little research on therapies for diastolic heart failure, guidelines focus on improving left ventricular function and on optimization of hemodynamics, notes the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Diagnosis of high blood pressure, which is when systolic pressure is 140 or above or diastolic pressure is 90 or above, can lead to a number of serious complications such as heart attack and stroke, aneurysms, heart failure, weakened and narrowed blood vessels in the kidneys, metabolic syndrome, trouble with memory or understanding, and thickened, narrow or torn vessels in the eyes, states Mayo Clinic.
Treatment for high blood pressure may include the use of medications and lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking and managing stress, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.