Vertigo makes individuals feel like they are spinning or in an environment that is moving, explains Medical News Today. This feeling of dizziness, tilting or impaired balance is often caused by inner ear complications, including Meniere's disease. Neurological issues, such as migraines, strokes or neck injuries, can also trigger vertigo.
Even when standing still, people with vertigo often experience a swaying motion or an overwhelming pull in one direction, according to WebMD. Depending on the source of vertigo, some individuals also suffer from hearing loss, ringing in the ears, nausea, sweating, headaches or and uncomfortable jerking motion in the eyes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV, is among the most common causes, developing when a buildup of calcium particles interferes with the inner ear's ability to communicate with the brain and regulate balance.
Vertigo caused by Meniere's disease is thought to be related to swelling from fluid buildup inside the inner ear, MNT states. Labyrinthitis and vestibular neuronitis are forms of peripheral vertigo triggered by viral infections that cause inflammation of the ear's internal passageways or vestibular nerve. Cases of central vertigo, such as migraines, affect the central nervous system and usually result from an irregular interruption of sensory signals transmitted to and from the brain stem, thalamus or cerebellum.