Causes of swollen gums between the teeth include gingivitis, pregnancy, malnutrition and gum infection, according to Healthline. This condition makes the gum protrude, appear red and bleed more easily when flossing or brushing the teeth.
Gingivitis occurs when plague or a thin film of bacteria form on the surface of the teeth over time, explains Healthline. This condition makes gums to separate from the teeth, causing injury to the bone and soft tissue that support the teeth, and making teeth become loose and unstable. Risk factors include diabetes, smoking, dental appliances that do not fit properly, and medications such as steroids, chemotherapy and oral contraceptives.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy can increase blood flow in the gums, irritating the gums and causing swelling, notes Healthline. These changes also inhibit the body’s ability to fight off bacteria that cause this condition.
Vitamin C deficiency can cause scurvy, which is a condition characterized by anemia and soft bleeding gums, note MedicineNet and Healthline. Additionally, viral or fungal infections, especially in people with herpes, can cause acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, leading to swollen gums.
Drinking plenty of water, especially after eating, washes food off the teeth, preventing plague formation, details WebMD. Patients should eat diets high in vitamin C and calcium, floss daily, avoid smoking and brush the teeth at least twice a day.