Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, proctalgia fugax and levator ani syndrome are all primary causes of sharp rectal pain. Other conditions that cause sharp rectal pain are cancer, infection, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign bodies in the rectum. Other causes include rectal prolapse and tailbone issues, according to eMedicineHealth.
Hemorrhoids are painful swelling of a vein or veins at the anus and are a common problem that affect up to 25 percent of adults in the United States. Intense straining during bowel movements usually cause hemorrhoids, but heavy lifting and childbirth cause them as well.
An anal fissure is a small skin tear at the opening of the rectum that occurs when a large and hard stool passes with excessive stretching of the anus. Anal fissures are common among people with tight sphincter tones since the muscle is not relaxed enough to allow the stool to pass. Anal fissures cause pain both before and after a bowel movement.
Proctalgia fugax, otherwise known as fleeting anal spasms, is a condition associated with fleeting rectal pain and occurs in 8 percent of Americans, although the condition is more common in women and in people younger than 45 years of age. The exact cause of the condition is unknown, but many doctors believe it is due to spasm of the anal sphincter muscle.
Levator ani syndrome affects 6 percent of the U.S. population, but it occurs in women more than men. Spasm of the levator ani muscles that surround and support the anus cause the condition.