According to MedicineNet, sharp pain in the right shoulder can be caused by injury or disease of the shoulder joint. Injury of the shoulder can include damage to the ligaments, bone, bursae, cartilage, menisci or tendons.
Injury to the shoulder causes inflammation, rotator cuff dysfunction or instability of the shoulder, according to MedicineNet. Extreme pain in the right shoulder can also be caused by a bone fracture. Disease of the joint, soft tissue or bone causes pain in the shoulder. Common diseases or conditions that could cause pain in the right shoulder are arthritis or heart attack. Some cancers cause pain in the shoulder area, but cancer is an uncommon cause for shoulder pain.