Several conditions can cause severe pain in the soles of the feet including bruises and the thickening of the tissue, as noted by WebMD. When the tissue thickens, it can affect the nerves in the feet.
Injuries, such as broken or fractured bones in the feet can, also cause severe pain. Other causes include flat feet or unsupported arches. When a person experiences foot pain that is severe and does not go away with rest or over-the-counter medications, he or she should consult a doctor. A doctor can determine whether the pain is caused by a minor injury or a condition that is far more serious.