Seizures are caused by a variety of health conditions including injury, illness and congenital problems, according to the Mayo Clinic. Epilepsy is a nervous system disorder that is a prominent cause of seizures.
Conditions that cause seizures include injury to the brain during childbirth or incidences of congenital brain defects, drug withdrawal, low blood sugar, and liver and kidney failure. Other causes include high fever, significantly elevated blood pressure, head trauma, brain tumors, fever, choking, electric shock, electrolyte disturbances and cardiovascular ailments such as strokes.
Seizures are genetically linked. It is important to include a family history of seizure in health histories, notes Healthline.
Epilepsy involves aberrant neuronal activity. It is thought to develop due to brain circuitry abnormalities or excess excitatory neurotransmitters, which are substances that carry signals from one neuron to another.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is one such neurotransmitter that has been extensively studied. The neuronal cell membrane is believed to play a significant role in epilepsy, and research is directed toward the transport, nourishment and repair mechanisms that are used by the cell membranes.
Disturbances sometimes lead to epilepsy, according to MedicineNet.com. Some seizures are considered nonepileptic because no abnormal seizure activity is seen in the brain. These are linked to narcolepsy and Tourette syndrome.