High levels of protein in the blood may indicate one of several conditions, including bone marrow disorder or disease, chronic inflammatory conditions, HIV/AIDS and amyloidosis. High blood protein may be found during routine blood work, or a doctor may order the test for diagnostic purposes, according to the Mayo Clinic.
An infection may also cause high levels of proteins in the blood, as can dehydration. High blood protein is sometimes the first sign of bone marrow disorders. A high-protein diet does not cause high protein levels in the blood. High blood protein is also known as hyperproteinemia, according to the Mayo Clinic.