According to Cancer Research UK, prostate cancer is believed to be caused by genetic factors, ethnicity, hormonal imbalances, malnutrition and age. Men with a father or brother who are diagnosed with prostate cancer, men who undergo a vasectomy, and men who are overweight or are especially tall have an increased risk of developing the disease themselves. Some studies suggest that prostatitis is an early warning sign of prostate cancer.
Men who have been previously diagnosed with other forms of cancer, such as lung cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer, may have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer in the future, notes Cancer Research UK. High calcium levels, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor in the blood and high cadmium levels may also pose a risk. Much of the research available surrounding the causes of prostate cancer provide conflicting or inconclusive evidence, so these claims are not absolute. According to Cancer Research UK, men can take steps to reduce their risk for contracting prostate cancer, such as eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, taking vitamin E supplements, obtaining adequate amounts of selenium and lycopene through different food groups and engaging in frequent physical activity. Cancer Research UK points out that some evidence also suggests that men who take a daily aspirin and those with diabetes mellitus are less likely to develop prostate cancer.