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What causes painful urination and blood in urine?

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Causes of painful urination include urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, narrowing of the urethra and kidney stones. Enlarged prostate, kidney infections, strenuous exercise and inherited disorders such as sickle cell anemia can cause blood in the urine, explains Mayo Clinic. Blood in the urine can come from the bladder, the urethra, the kidney or the ureter, according to WebMD

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Urinary tract infections are mainly bacterial infections, and the risk factors include pregnancy, diabetes and having a urinary catheter, notes WebMD. These infections are more common in women than men, especially those women who are pregnant or menopausal, notes Healthline. Inflammation of the bladder’s lining and infections such as gonorrhea, genital herpes and chlamydia can cause painful urination. Other causes include vaginal tissue irritants such as lotions, soaps and bubble baths.

In men, an enlarged prostate gland can compress the urethra and partially block the urine flow, causing difficulty urinating and blood in the urine, reports Mayo Clinic. Bacteria from the bloodstream may also enter the kidneys, causing kidney infections. Injury to the kidney and medications such as penicillin and the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide can cause urinary bleeding. It is not clear why strenuous exercise causes blood in the urine, but common suggestions include the breakdown of red blood cells, trauma to the bladder and dehydration.

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