Causes for pain under the toes include arthritis, injury from walking, cuts or scrapes, blisters, corns and calluses and infections, according to MedicineNet. Morton's neuroma also leads to toe pain.
Morton's neuroma is a condition marked by inflammation of the nerve between the bones of the toes, explains Cleveland Clinic. Patients with the condition experience a sharp and shooting pain that gets worse over time, especially when standing or walking on the ball of the foot. Other symptoms of Morton's neuroma include swelling between the toes and feeling like there is a pebble under the ball of the foot. Factors that increase the risk of developing the condition include wearing high heels, wearing tight or pointed shoes, and engaging in certain sports, such as running.
Rheumatoid arthritis and gout are forms of arthritis that can affect the toes, notes the Arthritis Foundation. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an autoimmune response in which the immune system attacks the thin membrane that lines the joints, leading to the development of corns, bunions and hammer toe. Gout is caused by excess uric acid that leads to the buildup of crystals in the joints of the feet. The condition often causes pain and swelling in the big toe.