Tension headaches, migraines, cluster headaches, cervicogenic headaches and occipital neuralgia are some causes of pain in the back of the head, states WebMD and About.com. Tension headaches may be chronic or episodic. They cause mild to moderate pain that wraps from the front to the back of the head.
Migraine headaches often reach intense levels of pain accompanied by dizziness, blurred vision, fatigue, nausea or sensitivity to light and noise, according to WebMD. Migraines either affect the entire head or shift to a confined area, such as the back of the head. Occipital neuralgia occurs when the occipital nerves, which run from the spinal cord up through the scalp, are damaged, and it typically causes intense jabbing pains in the back of the head and neck. Cervicogenic headaches affect the back of the head and neck, and severely limit neck movement, states About.com.