Some causes of nonmenstrual vaginal bleeding are pelvic inflammatory disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, vaginal infection, ovarian cysts, certain medications and cancer. An intrauterine device or trauma may contribute to vaginal bleeding, states WebMD.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding can occur in postmenopausal women, and it may be due to hormone replacement therapy, a uterine polyp or cancer. Because vaginal bleeding is a symptom of cancer, this can be a cause of concern for many postmenopausal women. Ten percent of women who experience vaginal bleeding after the menopause stage have endometrial cancer, as stated by Healthline.
Cancer can also develop in many other female reproductive organs, such as the ovaries, cervix and vagina. A woman's risk of developing cancer in these organs increases with age, according to eMedicineHealth.
Other main causes of vaginal bleeding are different types of infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and cervicitis, in the vagina or other female organs. Medications, such as anticoagulants, and underlying conditions, including hyperthyroidism, diabetes and von Willebrand disease, may cause this symptom in women.
Because abnormal vaginal bleeding has so many causes, treatment options are dependent on diagnosis. For example, if cervical cancer is the cause, treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, states Healthline.