Some possible causes of foot nerve pain are Morton's neuroma, medial plantar nerve entrapment and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Morton's neuroma causes a persistent pain at the ball of the foot when nerves between the third and fourth toes are affected. Although the direct causes for this condition is not entirely known, having flat feet or wearing ill-fitting shoes may be some contributing factors, states the National Institutes of Health's MedlinePlus.
Treatment can include injections of either anti-inflammatory or pain-blocking medications into the affected area.
Medial plantar nerve entrapment occurs when there is excessive pressure placed on the medial nerve by connective tissue, notes Baylor Scott & White Health. The medial nerve is found on the sole of the foot. The condition is called "jogger's foot" and can cause pain and numbness from the foot arch to the big toe.
Peripheral neuropathy is a diabetic complication that can cause nerve damage in different parts of the body, including the hands and feet, states Mayo Clinic. The condition can lead to ulcers and foot deformity.