The causes of Meniere's disease are not fully understood, as of 2015, but studies suggest it may result from unusual fluid volume in the inner ear, according to the Mayo Clinic. This improper fluid causes the vertigo and hearing loss associated with Meniere's disease.
The inner ear consists of passages and cavities, some of which are formed by bone, and some which are formed by softer membrane, explains the Mayo Clinic. In the membranous portion of the inner ear, called the membranous labyrinth, the endolymph fluid moves and interacts with hair-like sensors in order to orient the individual, resulting in proper balance.
Scientists have proposed certain triggers that may cause the fluid volume in the inner ear to fluctuate, according to the Mayo Clinic. This results in an abnormal pressure and chemical composition of the fluid as well, resulting in the improper function of the sensors. These proposed triggers include improper fluid drainage from blockage, allergies, immune disorders, infections or trauma. Meniere's disease may result from a combination of these factors as well, since a single cause is not well established.
Meniere's disease has been associated with age, as cases are far more common in patients in their 40s and 50s, notes the Mayo Clinic. However, cases have been reported in individuals of all ages, including children. Meniere's disease is considered chronic, and can have lasting effects.