According to the National Kidney Foundation, the two main causes of kidney failure are type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Kidney failure is the last stage of kidney disease and typically results in dialysis or a kidney transplant.
The National Kidney Foundation states that kidney failure can also be the result of glomerulonephritis, kidney infections, kidney stones or polycystic kidney disease. Glomerulonephritis is a disease in which there is significant damage to the kidney filtering system.
The Mayo Clinic explains that kidney failure occurs when the blood flow to the kidneys has slowed, there is an injury to the kidneys or the drainage tubes leaving the kidneys become blocked. WebMD adds kidney failure can be caused by medications or poisons that have infected the kidneys, causing them severe harm. Kidney failure usually occurs after the kidneys have lost 90 percent or more of their functioning abilities, states the National Kidney Foundation.
WebMD describes the symptoms for kidney failure as the inability to urinate or the ability to produce only small amounts of urination, back pain under the rib cage, lack of appetite, and swelling.
To diagnose kidney failure, patients must seek a health care professional to complete a blood or urine test, notes the National Kidney Foundation.