Gum inflammation or gingivitis mainly results from dental plaque buildup on the teeth, according to Medical News Today. Medical conditions including diabetes and cancer, drugs such as Dilantin, and hormonal changes resulting from processes such as pregnancy, menses and menopause may inflame the gums as well. An individual may also inherit gum inflammation from his parents.
Dental plaque is a substance that sticks on the teeth as a result of poor oral hygiene, and is mainly composed of bacteria, Medical News Today explains. Plaque on the teeth transforms into calculus, which is a hard substance that sticks around a tooth's base. These two substances cause gum irritation, which leads to inflammation. Although gum inflammation rarely causes other dental complications, it is advisable to seek medical care to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of the condition to avoid dental complications such as jaw bone infection, gingiva and jaw bone abscess, gum ulceration, and periodontitis, which may cause eventual teeth loss.
Possible treatments of gum inflammation include scaling, which is the removal of dental plaque or calculus from the teeth, and good oral hygiene practices, states Medical News Today. Because poor dental hygiene may be due to defects, including tooth crookedness, addressing such defects facilitates teeth cleaning.