Kidney or liver disorders, malnutrition, celiac or inflammatory bowel diseases, bleeding and immunodeficiency diseases can cause low globulin levels, explains Healthline. High globulin levels can also indicate health problems such as leukemia or genetic deficiencies.
Because globulin proteins are an important aspect of the immune system, high or low levels indicate some sort of health problem, according to Healthline. Low levels indicate that a person has an autoimmune disease and the body is fighting against itself. Elevated levels indicate that the body is fighting against a disease such as leukemia.
Agammaglobulinemia is an autoimmune diseased that occurs when the body does not produce enough gamma gobulins or antibodies, states MedlinePlus. Because there are not enough antibodies, the body is more likely to get attacked by illnesses and infections, especially in the joints, skin, lungs, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. If the body makes too many of these globulins, then a person contracts macroglobulinemia, a cancer that leads to infections, confusion, fatigue and nerve problems, WebMD explains.
Globulins are alpha, beta and gamma proteins that are found most often in the blood, says WebMD. These proteins are produced by the liver and immune system to bind with blood, fight infection and transport iron. The levels of these proteins are tested to determine if a person has an infection or a blood disease.