According to WebMD, the precise cause of ganglion foot cysts is unknown; however, a couple of theories may explain them. The strongest theory suggests there may be a flaw within the tendon sheath or joint capsule that causes a bulge. Another theory follows the idea that trauma causes joint tissues to break down and form small cysts that turn into a large mass.
Certain risk factors are associated with developing ganglion cysts, notes Mayo Clinic. Females between ages 20 and 30 are more likely to develop this type of cyst. Suffering an injury to joints or tendons is another high risk factor.
Ganglion foot cysts may not require medical treatment and may disappear on their own, explains WebMD. The most effective medical treatments are aspiration and surgery performed by a qualified physician. Aspiration is a two-part process involving a needle. First, the needle is used to draw fluid out of the cysts. Next, the cysts are injected with a steroid medication containing anti-inflammatory properties. Surgical removal is done on cysts that are painful and interfering with normal functions.