Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and finger injuries, such as fractures, can cause finger joint swelling, notes MedicineNet. These conditions also cause other symptoms, such as redness, bruising and pain in the affected joint.
Osteoarthritis is a condition in which the cartilage around the finger joint disintegrates, no longer providing a cushion between the bones, according to MedicineNet. People have a higher risk of contracting osteoarthritis as they age, though it is more common in men for patients under 45 and in women for patients over 55. Osteoarthritis may occur naturally or as the result of another condition, such as obesity, gout or diabetes. Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition in which the lining of the joints deteriorate, resulting in swelling and, in some cases, joint deformity, notes Mayo Clinic. Rheumatoid arthritis most commonly affects people over 40, with a higher incidence among women than men.
Slamming fingers in doors, jamming them when catching balls and using the hands to break a fall are some causes of finger fractures that lead to joint swelling, notes the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. People with fractured fingers may also experience tenderness, bruising and an inability to move the affected finger. If left untreated, a finger fracture may lead to a permanent loss of mobility in the affected finger and, in some cases, to finger deformity.