Some causes of trigeminal neuralgia are compression of the trigeminal nerve by the blood vessels, aneurysms or tumors, as well as diseases such as multiple scleroris, sarcoidosis and Lyme disease, according to MedicineNet. Trigeminal neuralgia is an inflammation of the nerve and causes extreme pain in the face.
There may be an association between trigeminal neuralgia and some collagen vascular diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, states MedicineNet. However, in many people the cause of this disorder is unknown. Trigeminal neuralgia is extremely painful, and the frequency of the pain varies. It is more likely to occur in those over age 60 and affects the right side of the face much more often than the left. The sensation feels like a stabbing pain or an electric shock, and it often starts at the jaw.
The pain that occurs with this disorder may worsen with exposure to touch or the cold and when chewing, notes MedicineNet. One of the most common medications that doctors prescribe to treat trigeminal neuralgia is Tegretol. For people who develop this disorder due to their multiple sclerosis, Lamictal may be an effective treatment. If medication does not work, a doctor may recommend surgery or radiation.