Some causes of excess fluid in the abdomen include portal hypertension, albumin, congestive heart failure, portal vein thrombosis and cancers of the liver, colon, ovaries and pancreas, explains MedlinePlus. Other causes include pancreatitis, long-term hepatitis C or B, and scarring of the heart's cover.
The medical term for the excess buildup of fluid in the abdomen is ascites, notes MedlinePlus. The symptoms are variable, depending on the cause of the buildup. Patients with a small amount of fluid in the abdomen may fail to experience the symptoms. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as quitting alcohol, limiting salt intake and reducing fluid intake.