Causes of an enlarged uterus include uterine fibroids and adenomyosis, according to WebMD. An enlarged uterus also occurs as a result of pregnancy, cervical cancer and endometrial cancer.
Uterine fibroids are tumors that attack the muscle on the uterine wall and are benign in nature, notes WebMD. Fibroids can either be small or big, and usually undergo shrinkage on their own after menopause. Although the exact cause of uterine fibroids is unclear, females with obesity and excessive body weight are more prone to uterine fibroids. Additionally, estrogen is a possible trigger of the uterine fibroid growth. Treatment for uterine fibroids include uterine artery embolization, which involves killing the tumors by cutting off blood supply; myomectomy, which is the surgical removal of the fibroids; and hysterectomy, which is a surgical removal of the whole uterus.
Adenomyosis is a condition in which the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular uterine wall, says WebMD. The exact cause of adenomyosis is unclear. However, it mostly attacks women who have undergone uterine surgery such as Caesarean section. Other than uterine enlargement, adenomyosis may cause prolonged menses and pain during menses and sex. Although treatment of adenomyosis may not be necessary, medications such as painkillers and birth control pills help alleviate symptoms.