Enlarged taste buds that produce red dots on the surface of the tongue are caused by vitamin B-12 and folic acid deficiencies, scarlet fever and Kawasaki syndrome, explains WebMD. People with a geographic tongue condition that produces reddish spots with white borders may also develop enlarged taste buds.
Red patches on the tongue that last longer than two weeks should be evaluated by a medical professional, advises WebMD. People with scarlet fever that has caused reddish spots on the tongue should consult with a physician, especially if a fever develops, to begin antibiotic treatment.
Kawasaki syndrome is a disease that affects blood vessels in children under 5, causing enlarged taste buds, according to WebMD.