An enlarged swollen tongue can be as a result of inflammation in the tongue, tumors, fluid accumulation in the tongue and the presence of unusual substances such as amyloids in the tongue, states MedicineNet. A swollen tongue can also occur due to an allergic reaction, trauma, abscess or bacterial infection.
Tumors penetrate the tissues in the tongue, causing it to swell. Fluids can collect in the tongue due to various disease processes. An allergic reaction to certain medicines and other substances can make the tongue to enlarge, explains MedicineNet. These allergic reactions are normally treated using steroid medications, epinephrine and antihistamines. An enlarged tongue can bring about breathing problems, leading to an emergency situation.