An enlarged aorta can be caused by aortic disease, which has many subtypes. Aortic disease comes in many forms including aortic arch aneurysms, aortic dissection and aortic valve disease.
These diseases can cause the aorta to become enlarged, resulting in the weakening of the walls it is made of. With an aortic aneurysm, for example, the aorta becomes enlarged and weakened, which then can result in tears or a rupture that can quickly become deadly. Some factors of this potentially life-threatening disease include smoking, high blood pressure, connective tissue disorders, age, and gender. There are also other ways for the aorta to become enlarged, through stenosis or other health problems.