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What causes a closed cervix?

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Cervical stenosis can form at birth or result from medical procedures that collapse the opening of the cervix, such as radiation therapy, surgeries to treat dysplasia or endometrial ablation, according to Merck Manuals. It is possible for untreated cervical stenosis to cause endometriosis and pyometra.

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Cervical stenosis is especially problematic during a woman's menstruation when blood doesn't have an adequate exit point through the cervix and becomes backed up in the uterus, notes Merck Manuals. This can cause pain, uterine bulging, abdominal lumps, atypical bleeding or completely halt a woman's period. Cervical stenosis can make it difficult for affected women to get pregnant because the decreased opening size of the cervix does not allow sperm to enter the uterus.

Symptoms associated with the condition are likely to diminish once a woman enters menopause. Doctors may discover the condition when attempting to perform a Pap smear or endometrial biopsy on a patient's cervix, according to Merck Manuals. Pain following a cervical surgery or irregular menstruation are also indicators that a woman has cervical stenosis. It's easy to diagnose the condition by trying to insert an instrument into the uterus through the opening of the cervix. In serious cases, cervical stenosis can cause pus to develop, which is also a symptom associated with cancer. Doctors are likely to obtain tissue samples to rule out the possibility of cancer.

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