Carcinomas, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, mainly result from ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, according to Mayo Clinic, WebMD and Everyday Health. This creates mutations in the DNA of the cells affected. Specific causes and risk factors depend on the particular type of carcinoma cancer.
Basal cell carcinoma is cancer that develops on parts of skin mainly exposed to the sun like the nose and face. This cancer may to spread to tissues under the skin, but it doesn't tend to affect organs. It grows very slowly, and its symptoms include the growth of a dome shape skin that has blood vessels in it and formation of scaly red or pink patches, explains WebMD. Risk factors include immune-suppressing drugs, a family history of skin cancer and fair skin, states Mayo Clinic.
Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the cells making up the outer layer of the skin, explains Everyday Health. It mainly affects the neck, lips, hands and the head. It can also spread to bones and lymph nodes, and it is not easy to treat it. Risk factors include older age, blonde or red hair, tanning beds and bulbs, and exposure to chemicals like arsenic, notes WebMD.
Renal cell carcinoma is the primary type of kidney cancer, and as of 2015, its cause is unknown, but risk factors include hypertension, smoking cigarettes and polycystic kidney disease. Symptoms include vision problem, loss of appetite and blood in the urine, according to Healthline.