As of 2014, the causes of bone cancer are not clearly defined, according to the National Cancer Institute. However, several risk factors have been identified, including having a family history of bone defects.
People with fractures that have been repaired with metal implants have a higher risk of developing bone cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. The American Cancer Society also lists several rare, inherited childhood diseases, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. People who suffer from Paget disease have an increased risk to develop bone cancer as well as those who have been exposed to ionizing radiation. Finally, there have been several reported cases of people developing bone cancer after receiving a bone marrow transplant.