Skin that is irritated from pressure and friction often results in the formation of calluses on the toes, states MNT. Having bunions or hammer toes, wearing improperly fitted shoes and standing for long periods are also common reasons why calluses develop.
Calluses form as the skin tries to protect a sensitive area from damage, according to MNT and WebMD. A callus typically forms on an area of skin that experiences friction from moving against something, such as the ground, a bone or a shoe. Additionally, calluses generally form underneath the toes in a bony area bearing increased pressure from the weight of the body.
Walking regularly is a common cause of callus development on the toes and feet. Additionally, having sweaty feet and wearing shoes without socks increases the risk of callus formation, explains MNT and WebMD. Walking in an abnormal manner also increases the chance of callus development. Females are more likely to have calluses than men, as wearing high heels increases pressure on the toes.
Although not normally harmful or painful, calluses can lead to skin infections or ulcerations, reports MNT. People who have circulation problems or diabetes are more likely to develop calluses on the toes. Calluses can also develop on the balls and heels of the feet and on other body parts, such as the knees and hands.