A common cause of red, burning toes is athlete's foot, according to WebMD. Athlete's foot is a fungal infection that affects the skin, usually on and between toes.
Athlete's foot causes redness on the skin and a burning or intense itching sensation. An over-the-counter treatment in the form of a antifungal cream or spray easily treats athlete's foot.
Another possible cause of burning, red toes is frostbite, notes Mayo Clinic. The toes and fingers are susceptible to frostbite, and the first signs can include redness, prickling and numbness. After warming up the area suffering from frostbite, the redness continues and a painful tingling or burning sensation can occur as well.