Ruptures or tears of the small blood vessels known as capillaries result in bruising, according to WebMD. These ruptures allow blood to escape the circulatory system and enter other tissue. Most of the time, normal bruising heals on its own and is not reason for concern. During the two to four weeks a bruise requires for healing, it undergoes several color changes.
Older people are more likely to suffer bruising than younger people, according to the Merck Manual. As humans age, they lose the protective fat layer under the skin. The capillaries become thinner and more fragile. Older adults are also more likely to take medications that thin the blood, including aspirin and warfarin.
Some natural supplements help people who suffer easy bruising, according to NYU Langone Medical Center. Research shows citrus bioflavonoids, the substances that give color to many vegetable products, help to reduce the tendency to bruise. According to test-tube studies, people with easily damaged capillaries show less bruising with regular supplementation. Researchers also believe vitamin C helps to maintain collagen, which ensures the capillaries and skin remain elastic.
Sometimes bruising is due to a hematoma, according to WebMD. The hematoma forms when blood pools under the skin and forms a rubbery, spongy lump that is less spread out than a normal bruise. Most hematomas should not cause concern and dissolve within a few weeks.