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What causes brain lesions?

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Brain lesions, abnormalities found on brain-imaging tests, are caused by several conditions, such as encephalitis, hydrocephalus, multiple sclerosis, a brain aneurysm or traumatic brain injury, according to Mayo Clinic. When abnormal blood vessels connect veins and arteries in the brain, they can result in brain arteriovenous malformation, or AVM, another condition that causes brain lesions, explains WebMD.

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Brain tumors, abscesses, cerebral palsy and cerebral infarction are common types of brain lesions, reports WebMD. While the specific cause of a brain lesion's appearance is usually unknown, most brain lesions are results of infections, injuries, chemical exposure and immune system deficiencies. The damaged area of brain tissue varies in size and number, and it can be benign or life-threatening. Depending on the type of lesion, symptoms include headaches, seizures, nausea, fever and neck pain.

Trauma is the leading cause of acute brain injuries that result in lesions, states MedicineNet. Trauma can damage brain cells due to swelling or bleeding within the skull. The brain's ability to function properly is also compromised when pressure builds within the skull and presses onto the brain. An infection such as neurocysticercosis, a common cause of epilepsy, leads to visible calcifications in the brain. The inflammation of brain tissue also leads to conditions that result in lesions, such as encephalitis and meningitis.

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