Causes of bone spurs on the foot include aging, tight ligaments and activities such as dancing or running. They are also caused by pressure on the feet from being overweight or wearing shoes that don't fit well, says WebMD.
When humans age, the cartilage between the bones and joints breaks down and wears thin. This is a condition called osteoarthritis, and over time it causes pain and swelling which may lead to the formation of bone spurs. In addition to the feet, bone spurs caused by aging are commonly found along the spine, adds WebMD.
Many cases of bone spurs are not associated with any symptoms, as of 2015. However, if the spur is rubbing against other bones or tissues, it may cause pain and swelling, says WebMD. Corns or calluses may also form in response to a bone spur on the foot. The extra buildup of tissue is meant to cushion the bone spur.
Bone spurs that do not cause symptoms generally go untreated. Treatment for bone spurs that cause pain include weight loss, stretching and different forms of physical therapy. Other treatments for the symptoms include rest, ice and over-the-counter pain killers such as ibuprofen, according to WebMD. They are also sometimes surgically removed or repaired.