An anterior myocardial infarction is a heart attack involving the left anterior descending artery of the heart, defines Cath Lab Digest. Primary contributing factors to these types of heart attacks include diabetes, hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, smoking, male gender and a family history of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, according to American Nurse Today. Additional contributing factors include type A personality, advanced age, stress, inflammation, high cholesterol and lack of exercise, notes Mayo Clinic.
Among all causes, the most common cause of anterior infarctions is advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, explains American Nurse Today. Of all types of heart attacks, anterior wall myocardial infarctions are the most serious and have the worst prognosis. During an anterior myocardial infarction, the oxygen supply to the heart is interrupted, causing the death of heart muscles of the front and occasionally the side and septum of the left ventricle, according to Health Guide Info.
These heart attacks are typically more massive than other myocardial infarctions and result in more damage to the heart, American Nurse Today states. Those surviving these types of heart attacks are at an elevated risk for recurrence, with 10 percent dying within the first year. Most deaths from anterior wall myocardial infarctions result from advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and occur within the first three to four months of the initial event. Survival rates are improved significantly with early diagnosis and prompt treatment.